【1839年9月5日】鴉片戰爭日誌

【1839年9月5日】鴉片戰爭日誌

 #鴉片戰爭日誌 林維喜案事件簿

  • 日期:1839年9月5日

(甲)·地點:九龍海面    人物:船長士密

清晨,「窩拉疑號」船長士密欲再以武力進逼,但最終並未能成功。

此役結果,清水师擊翻英人雙桅船一隻,斃夷人數十七名,傷無算。清軍僅戰亡兵丁歐士乾、陳端龍二名,傷六名,師船略有損壞而已。

(乙)·地點:虎門   ·人物:林則徐、怡良

林則徐上奏後的第四天,感到有萬分把握,在給密友廣東巡撫怡良的信中,對義律此時表現出來的強硬態度大惑不解,謂:「然替義律設想,總無出路,不知因何尚不回頭?」

与此同时,澳門的葡萄牙人那裡傳出消息,說英國已經從本土和印度調集了12艘軍艦來華。對此,林則徐嗤之以鼻,他告訴澳門總督:「此等謊言,原不過義律等張大其詞,無足深論。

晚,林則徐、鄧廷楨「是夜抵虎門鎮口」。

林則徐給怡良的信函反映了當時他對義律(侵略者)的真實意圖尚未洞察。

(丙)·地點:澳門   ·人物:粵海關監督豫堃

粵海關監督豫堃巡視澳門,澳門與內地貿易即於當時恢復。

豫堃於澳門逗留三天,八月初一(9月8日)離開。他進出澳門時受到在大炮台的禮炮聲迎送。

#知史討論

(1)這次零星衝突遂揭開了第一次鴉片戰爭的序幕。九龍山海戰只是小戰事,但在香港史就是一件大事,戰場首次在香港,標誌著英國入侵香港的開始。

(2)據新安縣知縣梁星源打掃戰場後稟報:「查夷人撈起屍首就近掩埋者,已有十七具。又漁舟疊見夷屍隨潮漂淌,英船船主忌刺士手腕被炮打斷。此外,夷人受傷者,尤不勝計。」

(3)義律也向帕麥斯頓報捷:

Charles Elliot to Viscount Palmerston September 5, 1839

I YESTERDAY proceeded to Kow Lune, in the cutter Louisa, distant about 4 miles from this anchorage, where there were three large men-of-war junks, whose presence, I collected from the natives about us, prevented the regular supplies of food. I was accompanied by the Pearl, a small armed-vessel, and Captain Smith of the Volage was so good as to lend me the pinnace of his ship, and to go with me himself. But I can assure your Lordship, that though I am responsible for causing the first shot to be fired, I did not anticipate any conflict when we left, and went accompanied solely for purposes of sufficient defence against insult or attack.

The violent and vesatious measures heaped upon Her Majesty's officer and subjects will, I trust, serve to excuse those feelings of irritation which have betrayed me into a measure that I am sensible, under less trying circumstances, would be difficult indeed of vindication. ...

They returned to me with this intelligence, and greatly provoked, I opened fire from the pinnace, the cutter, and the other vessel, upon the three junks. It was answered both from them and the battery, with a spirit not at all unexpected by me, for I have already had experience that the Chinese are much under-rated in that respect. After a fire of almost half-an-hour against this vastly superior force, we hauled off from the failure of our ammunition; for I have already said, anticipating no serious results, we had not come in prepared for them. It was evident, however, that the junks had suffered considerably, and after a delay about three-quarters of an hour, they weighted and made sail from under the protection of the battery, with the obvious purpose of making their escape through an adjacent outlet. ...

The only casualty I have to report on this occasion, is a flesh wound in the arm to Captain Douglas, of the ship Cambridge, in a gallant attempt to carry one of the junks at the close of the day; and two of his boat's crew also wounded rather more severely....

The Inclosure, No. 4, is a paper I have circulated on shore since the affair of yesterday.

Inclosure 4 in No. 157 Notice to the Chinese People regarding the peacefulness of our objects, September 5, 1839

The men of the English nation desire nothing but peace; but they cannot submit to be poisoned and starved. The Imperial cruizers they have no wish to molest or impede; but they must not prevent the people from selling. To deprive men of food is the act only of the unfriendly and hostile.

(《鴉片戰爭日誌》取材自林則徐親撰的銷煙日記,每天帶你瞭解當年今日的歷史事件。本文由「國史教育中心(香港)」授權「知史」發佈,特此鳴謝。)

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